CI/CD considerations


In this section, we will discuss the recommended techniques for managing the evolution and mutation of container images to run WebLogic Server in Kubernetes. There are several approaches and techniques available, and the choice of which to use depends very much on your particular requirements. We will start with a review of the “problem space,” and then talk about the considerations that would lead us to choose various approaches. We will provide details about several approaches to implementing CI/CD and links to examples.

Review of the problem space

Kubernetes makes a fundamental assumption that images are immutable, that they contain no state, and that updating them is as simple as throwing away a pod/container and replacing it with a new one that uses a newer version of the image. These assumptions work very well for microservices applications, but for more traditional workloads, we need to do some extra thinking and some extra work to get the behavior we want.

CI/CD is an area where the standard assumptions aren’t always suitable. In the microservices architecture, you typically minimize dependencies and build images from scratch with all of the dependencies in them. You also typically keep all of the configuration outside of the image, for example, in Kubernetes config maps or secrets, and all of the state outside of the image too. This makes it very easy to update running pods with a new image.

Let’s consider how a WebLogic image is different. There will, of course, be a base layer with the operating system; let’s assume it is Oracle Linux “slim”. Then you need a JDK and this is very commonly in another layer. Many people will use the officially supported JDK images from the Docker Store, like the Server JRE image, for example. On top of this, you need the WebLogic Server binaries (the “Oracle Home”). On top of that, you may wish to have some patches or updates installed. And then you need your domain, that is the configuration.

There is also other information associated with a domain that needs to live somewhere, for example leasing tables, message and transaction stores, and so on. We recommend that these be kept in a database to take advantage of built-in database server HA, and the fact that disaster recovery of sites across all but the shortest distances, almost always requires using a single database server to consolidate and replicate data (DataGuard).

There are three common approaches on how to structure these components:

  • The first, “domain on a persistent volume” or Domain on PV, places the JDK and WebLogic binaries in the image, but the domain home is kept on a separate persistent storage outside of the image.
  • The second, Domain in Image, puts the JDK, WebLogic Server binaries, and the domain home all in the image. NOTE: The Domain in Image domain home source type is deprecated in WebLogic Kubernetes Operator version 4.0. Oracle recommends that you choose either Domain on PV or Model in Image, depending on your needs.
  • The third approach, Model in Image, puts the JDK, WebLogic Server binaries, and a domain model in the image, and generates the domain home at runtime from the domain model.

All of these approaches are perfectly valid (and fully supported) and they have various advantages and disadvantages. We have listed the relative advantages of these approaches here.

One of the key differences between these approaches is how many images you have, and therefore, how you build and maintain them - your image CI/CD process. Let’s take a short detour and talk about image layering.